Between central Arizona and Northern Mexico a complex agricultural society called the Hohokam Indian tribe occupied this region. A considerably Hohokam settlement that had some extensive irrigated fields is located on property will become what is currently known as Downtown Tucson, Arizona.
It really isn't known why the Hohokam Indian Tribe vanished. However, it was somehow related to the inability to produce sufficient crops. One theory is that their irrigation canals were destroyed by flooding.
Between 1536 and 1542, two explorers named Francisco Vasquez de Coronado and Fray Marcos de Niza, visited what is currently known as Arizona. They were leading a 1,000 man expedition in search of the seven cities of Gold from Mexico City.
A Jesuit Father named Eusebio Kino made his initial visit to the region in 1687 and locates some Pima Indians residing in an agrarian settlement that is well irrigated.
Around 1701, later, at the base of Sentinel Peak, Father Kino establishes the Mission San Agustin.
The northern Pima Indians revolt against the Spanish. The Spaniards are taking control of the Indians way of life as well as their lands. For those native Indians who won't follow Spanish rules of convert to Catholicism, the Jesuit missionaries punish them harshly. These Native Indians start a rebellion, which the Spanish soldiers quickly put down and imprison their leader.
Construction starts on Mission San Agustin in 1800. This is a sister mission to San Xavier, seven miles upriver. This Mission is used as a dormitory, school, and an administrative building. However, this Mission was abandoned in 1828.
The Mexican-American War officially ends officially when the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed in 1848. Mexico gives up most or all of what is currently known as the states of Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and the northern parts of New Mexico and, which is a total of some 525,000 square miles, for the some $10 million dollars. In six more years, the U. S. will buy the southern part of New Mexico, which will add another 30,000 square miles.
By comparison, in 1803, President Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana Purchase for some $15 million, which added some 828,000 square miles and doubled the size of the U.S. In dollars today, $15 million dollars would be around one half billion dollars, which remains one of the best bargains of all time.
From 1849 through 1850, Tucson starts to see large numbers of white pioneers. They attracted to the west by the California Gold rush.
The first Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach reaches Tucson from St. Louis on its way to San Francisco in 1858. For most people who live in Tucson, this is an amazing event. However for the r passengers, the ride is absolutely miserable.
The Butterfield Overland Mail stops operating in 1861, as the result of the Civil War. United States soldiers are required to be back east in order to defeat the rebels. No longer does the have any protection from the Apache Indian tribe.
That same year an Army Lieutenant meets with Cochise. The following event comes to be known as the Bascom Affair. This is the beginning of the Apache Wars that will last during the next 25 years.
The legislature in the state of Arizona repeals the school segregation law in 1951, and Tucson District Number one becomes the first state to desegregate. The population of Tucson is approximately 55,000 people.
The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, which is the most popular attraction in Arizona, opens in 1952. In 1963,
Arizona wins United Stated Supreme Court decision in a long contest over Arizona's share of Colorado River water, which revives hopes for the Central Arizona Project.
The population of Pima County has increased to 450,000 people by 1975. However, in 1980 the population of the greater Tuscan metro area is some 531,000 people.
In 1981, with significant controversy, Mexico provides Tucson with a bronze statue of Poncho Villa that weighs seven ton. This statue is located between West Congress Street Downtown and West Broadway Street in the Veinte de Agosto Park, where they cross Church Street.
In 1987, a Save the Temple group is successful in saving the historic Temple of Music and Art from being demolished and the restoration of the temple is started.
During the 1990's, the Mission San Xavier del Bac is extensively cleaning and restored by some European experts as well as some local artisans, also cleaned and restored the Sistine Chapel.
The Fox Theater in the Downtown area reopens on New Year's Eve in 20. This is following some 26 years during which it was a pornographic theater, and then a derelict building that was inhabited by vagrants. The Fox Theater should be given an award for the best resurrection of the year.
In 2914, the community of Tucson receives a modern streetcar at a cost of some $168 million. This is the first street car has received since December 31, 1930. The four mile route connects Mercado in the west to University Medical Center in the east, with several stops along the recently renovated Downtown area. This includes Congress Street, 4th Avenue, as well as the Main Gate Square.
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