Spain granted independence to Mexico in 1821. The state borders of the extended further north to include the settlement Tucson. In 1853, the U. S. bought the Gadsden Purchase from Mexico. This included a parcel a of property, which contained the settlement of Tucson, which would be used sometime later to establish the transcontinental railroad next to a deep southern route that was used by the Southern Pacific Railroad.
In 1846, prior to the Capture of Tucson, a Mormon Battalion marched across southernmost Arizona next to the San Pedro River, which was located just north of Tucson there the Mormon soldiers fought the furiously and humorously in the Battle of the Bulls. Along the way, the Mormon soldiers came across some wild cattle next to the banks of the San Pedro River where many bulls began to charge their column and tipped over their wagons and killed mules as well as two soldiers being injured. The soldiers shot, wounded, and killed numerous wild cattle. They marched into Tucson in 1846. There wasn't any conflict because the smaller Mexican garrison quickly fled. The Mormons continued their march to the Pacific. A brief occupation ensued.
The Civil started in 1861 and once the civil war had started, a force of the Arizonan militia as well as the Texan cavalry Lieutenant Colonel named John Baylor conquered the territory of southern New Mexico, which included Tucson and Mesilla, and Baylor proclaimed the existence of a Territory of Confederate Arizona. This consisted of the area that was defined the previous year at the Tucson convention. At that time Tucson was its capital. He appointed himself as permanent governor.
All of Arizona, including Tucson, was still a portion of the Territory of New Mexico Territory until 1863, when the Arizona Organic Act was passed the Senate, which formed the Territory of Arizona. In 1867, the territorial capital was relocated from Prescott to Tucson where it remained until 1877. The University of Arizona was established in Tucson, in 1885.
During the early statehood and territorial periods, Tucson was the largest community, railroad and commercial hub in Arizona, despite, starting, in 1889, Phoenix was the seat of agriculture and state government. From 1910 through 1920, Phoenix had a larger population than Tucson in has continually outpaced Tucson in growth. However, both Phoenix and Tucson have experienced some of the highest growth rates in the nation.
The population of Tucson was 7,531 residents in 1900. BY 1940 the population of Tucson had increased to 36,828 people. The population of Pima County, which is the county that Tucson is located, was 535,000 people in 2006.
Five members of the Dillinger gang, which included John Dillinger, were arrested in Tucson in 1934. They were the FBI's public enemy list. A fire permitted the firemen to determine their identity and the police quickly arrested John Dillinger, Ed Shouse, Charles Makley, and Harry Pierpont. The police found the gang in possession of five machine guns, three machine guns, three sub machines and more than $25,000 in cash.
Between 1941 and 1945 when WW II was being fought, the community organizations of Mexican-Americans were quite active in their patriotic efforts to support the American troops abroad and also made efforts to provide moral support for the young American men who were fighting the war, particularly the young Mexican-American men from local communities to support the war effort materially. Some of the projects of the community were cooperative ventures in which members of both the Anglo and Mexican-American could participate in. The majority of these efforts were conducted in the Mexican-American community, but they still represented localized American activities on the home front, which that were separate from Anglo community.
During WW II, the women of the Mexican-American community in Tucson made efforts to help the war effort as well as their servicemen. A Lieutenant named Neill MacArtan arrived in Tucson, Arizona, looking for a location for a sanatorium. He found almost 700 veterans scattered in shameful conditions all throughout the region started a 10 year struggle to construct a southwestern veteran's hospital. The success of Tucson is the story of community residents and officials battling other contenders, lobbying Congress, organizing, and volunteering, such as Livermore, California. In spite the death of MacArtan from tuberculosis in 1922, in 1928, the Veterans Administration Hospital was completed and opened in Pastime Park.
Several veterans and sufferers of tuberculosis who had been gassed during WW I and were in need of respiratory therapy arrived in Tucson after the end if war due to its clean, dry air.
In 1880, with the establishment of the Southern Pacific Railroad, the Chinese arrived in Tucson. Mexican and Chinese farmers and merchants forgot about their racial differences. The two groups formed relationships that were based on of trust and friendship. The Chinese people aided their compatriots, who were trying to gain entry into the United States, from Mexico after the 1910 Mexican Revolution. They also opened grocery stores and leased property from Mexicans.